## On the Pairing Between Zeros and Critical Points of Random Polynomials with Independent Roots Public Deposited

Abstract
• Consider the random, complex polynomial pn(z) = ∏n j=1(zXj ), whose roots X1,..., Xn are complex-valued random variables. It is known that for large n, when the roots are independently and identically distributed (iid), the critical points and roots of pn are stochastically similar. In particular, Pemantle and Rivin, Kabluchko, Reddy, and others showed that when X1, X2,... are iid with distribution μ, then the empirical measure constructed from the critical points of pn converges to μ in probability as the degree n tends to infinity.

Simulations show that, in fact, the roots and critical points of pn "pair-up" with one another in a nearly one-to-one fashion, a phenomenon which has been initially investigated by Hanin, O'Rourke, Kabluchko and Seidel, the author, and others. This thesis seeks to quantify root-and-critical-point pairing on several scales, including macroscopic comparisons between entire collections of roots and critical points, microscopic examinations of individual critical points that lie near fixed roots, and a "mesoscopic" local law to explain the situation at scales in between.

In Chapter 2, we show that for a deterministic point ξ lying outside the support of μ, almost surely the polynomial qn(z) := pn(z)(z - ξ) has a critical point at distance O(1/n) from ξ. In other words, conditioning the random polynomials pn to have a root at ξ almost surely forces a critical point near ξ. More generally, we prove an analogous result for the critical points of qn(z) := pn(z)(z - ξ1)...(z - ξk), where ξ1,..., ξk are deterministic. In addition, when k = o(n), we show that the empirical distribution constructed from the critical points of qn converges to μ in probability as the degree tends to infinity, extending a result of Kabluchko.

In Chapter 3, under a regularity assumption, we show that if the roots of pn are iid, the Wasserstein distance between the empirical distributions of roots and critical points of pn is on the order of 1/n, up to logarithmic corrections. The proof relies on a careful construction of disjoint random Jordan curves in the complex plane, which allow us to naturally pair roots and nearby critical points. In addition, we establish asymptotic expansions to order 1/n2 for the locations of the nearest critical points to several fixed roots. This allows us to describe the joint limiting fluctuations of the critical points as n tends to infinity, extending a recent result of Kabluchko and Seidel. Finally, we present a local law that describes the behavior of the critical points when the roots are neither independent nor identically distributed.

Creator
Date Issued
• 2019