Date of Award

Spring 1-1-2019

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)

First Advisor

Terry F. Kleeman

Second Advisor

Loriliai Biernacki

Third Advisor

Holly Gayley


This thesis addresses the concept of the body and souls in the Liturgy of Salvation through Refinement (liandu yi 鍊度儀) based on the Great Rites of Shangqing Lingbao (Shangqing Lingbao dafa 上清灵宝大法) written by Wang Qizhen 王契真. It traces the concept of refinement from texts in early Celestial Master Daoism, Shangqing revelation and the Lingbao tradition to explore how the idea of refinement gradually became a practice in ritual performance before and during the Tang dynasty. After that, it carefully examines the Liturgy of Salvation through Refinement and analyzes the metaphors of the pools of water and fire, the correlative relationship between the body and deities, and the ideas of souls and purgatory. This study intends to explore the concept of body and souls and improve the knowledge of ritual performance in Song China.