Physical Review Letters
We observe interlaced square vortex lattices in rotating dilute-gas spinor Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). After preparing a hexagonal vortex lattice in a one-component BEC in an internal atomic state |1>, we coherently transfer a fraction of the superfluid to a different state |2>. The subsequent evolution of this pseudo-spin-1/2 superfluid towards a state of offset square lattices involves an intriguing interplay of phase-separation and -mixing dynamics, both macroscopically and on the length scale of the vortex cores, and a stage of vortex turbulence. The stability of the square structure is proved by its response to applied shear perturbations. An interference technique shows the spatial offset between the two vortex lattices. Vortex cores in either component are filled by fluid of the other component, such that the spin-1/2 order parameter forms a Skyrmion lattice.
Schweikhard, Volker; Coddington, I.; Engels, Peter; Tung, Shihkuang; and Cornell, Eric A., "Vortex Lattice Dynamics in Rotating Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensates" (2004). Physics Faculty Contributions. 27.