Physical Review Letters
We study the formation of large vortex aggregates in a rapidly rotating dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. When we remove atoms from the rotating condensate with a tightly focused, resonant laser, the density can be locally suppressed, while fast circulation of a ring-shaped superflow around the area of suppressed density is maintained. Thus a giant vortex core comprising 7 to 60 phase singularities is formed. The giant core is only metastable, and it will refill with distinguishable single vortices after many rotation cycles. The surprisingly long lifetime of the core can be attributed to the influence of strong Coriolis forces in the condensate. In addition we have been able to follow the precession of off-center giant vortices for more than 20 cycles.
Engels, Peter; Coddington, I.; Haljan, P. C.; Schweikhard, Volker; and Cornell, Eric A., "Observation of Long-lived Vortex Aggregates in Rapidly Rotating Bose-Einstein Condensates" (2003). Physics Faculty Contributions. 17.