Physical Review Letters
We have studied the dynamics of large vortex lattices in a dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. While undisturbed lattices have a regular hexagonal structure, large-amplitude quadrupolar shape oscillations of the condensate are shown to induce a wealth of nonequilibrium lattice dynamics. When exciting an m=−2 mode, we observe shifting of lattice planes, changes of lattice structure, and sheetlike structures in which individual vortices appear to have merged. Excitation of an m=+2 mode dissolves the regular lattice, leading to randomly arranged but still strictly parallel vortex lines.
Engels, Peter; Coddington, I.; Haljan, P. C.; and Cornell, Eric A., "Nonequilibrium Effects of Anisotropic Compression Applied to Vortex Lattices in Bose-Einstein Condensates" (2002). Physics Faculty Contributions. 14.