Document Type

Article

Publication Date

2017

Publication Title

Physical Review Fluids

ISSN

2469-990X

Volume

2

Issue

9

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevFluids.2.093601

Abstract

Phys. Rev. Fluids 2, 093601 (2017) We present detailed observations of the shock waves emitted at the collapse of single cavitation bubbles using simultaneous time-resolved shadowgraphy and hydrophone pressure measurements. The geometry of the bubbles is systematically varied from spherical to very non-spherical by decreasing their distance to a free or rigid surface or by modulating the gravity-induced pressure gradient aboard parabolic flights. The non-spherical collapse produces multiple shocks that are clearly associated with different processes, such as the jet impact and the individual collapses of the distinct bubble segments. For bubbles collapsing near a free surface, the energy and timing of each shock are measured separately as a function of the anisotropy parameter $\zeta$, which represents the dimensionless equivalent of the Kelvin impulse. For a given source of bubble deformation (free surface, rigid surface or gravity), the normalized shock energy depends only on $\zeta$, irrespective of the bubble radius $R_{0}$ and driving pressure $\Delta p$. Based on this finding, we develop a predictive framework for the peak pressure and energy of shock waves from non-spherical bubble collapses. Combining statistical analysis of the experimental data with theoretical derivations, we find that the shock peak pressures can be estimated as jet impact-induced hammer pressures, expressed as $p_{h} = 0.45\left(\rho c^{2}\Delta p\right)^{1/2} \zeta^{-1}$ at $\zeta > 10^{-3}$. The same approach is found to explain the shock energy quenching as a function of $\zeta^{-2/3}$.

Comments

Accepted for publication in Physical Review Fluids.

©2017 American Physical Society.

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