The ability to regenerate is a fundamental requirement for tissue homeostasis. Regeneration draws on three sources of cells. First and best-studied are dedicated stem/progenitor cells. Second, existing cells may proliferate to compensate for the lost cells of the same type. Third, a different cell type may change fate to compensate for the lost cells. This review focuses on regeneration of the third type and will discuss the contributions by post-transcriptional mechanisms including the emerging evidence for cell-autonomous and non-lethal roles of cell death pathways.
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