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The term planetary health—denoting the interdependence between human health and place at all scales—emerged from the environmental and preventive health movements of the 1970–80s; in 1980, Friends of the Earth expanded the World Health Organization definition of health, stating: “health is a state of complete physical, mental, social and ecological well-being and not merely the absence of disease—personal health involvesplanetary health”. Planetary health is not a new discipline; it is an extension of a concept understood by our ancestors, and remains the vocation of multiple disciplines. Planetary health, inseparably bonded to human health, is formally defined by the inVIVO Planetary Health network as the interdependent vitality of all natural and anthropogenic ecosystems (social, political and otherwise). Here, we provide the historical background and philosophies that have guided the network, and summarize the major themes that emerged at the 7th inVIVO meeting in Canmore, Alberta, Canada. We also provide the Canmore Declaration, a Statement of Principles for Planetary Health. This consensus statement, framed by representative participants, expands upon the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and affirms the urgent need to consider the health of people, places and the planet as indistinguishable.


Susan L. Prescott 1,2,*,†, Alan C. Logan 2,*,†, Glenn Albrecht 2,3,†, Dianne E. Campbell 2,4,†, Julian Crane 2,5,†, Ashlee Cunsolo 2,6,†, John W. Holloway 2,7,†, Anita L. Kozyrskyj 2,8,†, Christopher A. Lowry 2,9,†, John Penders 2,10,†, Nicole Redvers 2,11,†, Harald Renz 2,12,†, Jakob Stokholm 2,13,†, Cecilie Svanes 2,14,†, Ganesa Wegienka 2,15 and On Behalf of inVIVO Planetary Health, of the Worldwide Universities Network (WUN) 1 The ORIGINS Project, Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009, Australia 2inVIVO Planetary Health, of the Worldwide Universities Network (WUN), West New York, NJ 10704, USA 3 School of Geosciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia 4 Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia 5 Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington 6242, New Zealand 6 Labrador Institute of Memorial University, Happy Valley-Goose Bay, NL A0P 1E0, Canada 7 Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK 8 Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada 9 Department of Integrative Physiology University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA 10 Departments of Medical Microbiology, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands 11 Arctic Indigenous Wellness Foundation, Yellowknife, NT X1A 2P1, Canada 12 Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Philipps-University Marburg, 35043 Marburg, Germany 13 COPSAC, Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, 1165 København, Copenhagen, Denmark 14 Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, N-5020 Bergen, Norway 15 Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI 48202, USA *Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed. Membership of inVIVO Planetary Health, of the Worldwide Universities Network (WUN) is provided in the Acknowledgements.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.