Date of Award

Spring 1-1-2019

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

First Advisor

Dejan S. Filipovic

Second Advisor

Taylor W. Barton

Third Advisor

Scott E. Palo

Fourth Advisor

William N. Kefauver

Fifth Advisor

Mohamed A. Elmansouri

Abstract

This thesis presents the analysis, design, and experimental characterization of antenna systems considered for shipborne, airborne, and space platforms. These antennas are innovated to enable Simultaneous Transmit and Receive (STAR) at same time and polarization, either at the same, or duplex frequencies. In airborne and shipborne platforms, developed antenna architectures may enhance the capabilities of modern electronic warfare systems by enabling concurrent electronic attack and electronic support operations. In space, and more precisely at geostationary orbit, designed antennas aim to decrease the complexity of conventional phased array systems, thereby increasing their capabilities and attractiveness. All antennas researched are first designed as a standalone radiator, then as entity of a platform having multiple different antennas.

An ultrawideband, lossless cavity-backed Vivaldi antenna array for flush-mounting applications is first investigated. Eigen-mode analysis is used to analyze antenna-cavity interaction and to show that the entire structure may resonate within the band of interest resulting in a significant degradation of antenna performance. A simple approach based on connecting the array’s edge elements in E-plane to the cavity walls is proposed to eliminate the deleterious impact of these cavity resonances. The designed antenna is a 3 × 4 array with 3 elements in E-plane and 4 elements in H-plane, fabricated using stacked all-metal printed circuit board technique. Scan performance of the proposed cavity-backed antenna is investigated in two principal planes and is shown to have similar performance compared to its free-standing counterpart. A simplified version of this single-polarized antenna, when used for broadside only applications is developed. This antenna, excited with a single coaxial feed is shown to have a smaller aperture than the 3 × 4 array. Isolations between two of these antennas when mounted on a compact shared-antenna platform are investigated through computation and experiments.

To extend the capability of systems relying on these designed antennas, frequency reuse is enabled through dual-polarized functionality. A dual-polarized, flush mounted, Vivaldi antenna, directly integrated with an all-metal cavity is introduced as an alternative to coax-fed quad-ridge horns. An approach based on shaping the side walls of the cavity is used to eliminate the occurrence of resonances. The proposed dual-polarized resonant-free antenna has two orthogonal 2 × 1 arrays with two elements in the E-plane, one element in the H-plane. It is fed using two 2-way power dividers that can be easily designed to maintain low amplitude and phase imbalances. The antenna is fabricated as a single piece and experimentally shows a monotonic gain increase with low cross-polarization over 4:1 bandwidth.

Phased array antennas operating at geostationary orbit are required to scan within Earth’s field of view, without any grating lobe appearance. For dual-polarized applications, this requirement has limited the widespread and attractiveness of these systems at frequencies such as X-band. The narrow 150 MHz guard range between transmit and receive bands, leads to impractical diplexers in conventional dual-polarized systems. This research introduces a dual-polarized subarray architecture for X-band phased array systems which enables high isolation between closely separated TX and RX bands. The proposed approach either eliminates the need for diplexers, or significantly decreases their required complexity.

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