Date of Award

Spring 1-1-2011

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

A. Susan Jurow

Second Advisor

Ben Kirshner

Third Advisor

Michele Moses


Feedback is a vital part of any learning program. Feedback is defined as information provided to a learner that is informative about the results of his or her behaviors. Specifically, this information serves as a guide for future actions and learning; it guides the learner through the material by revealing gaps in his or her knowledge, by correcting any misconceptions, and by providing a roadmap for future learning. In today’s public education, classroom teachers are regularly tasked with providing feedback to hundreds of students in an effort to improve their learning. A challenge in doing this is that each student has his or her own preference for what motivates them in an academic setting (Ames & Archer, 1988). However, an advantage of taking the time to find out what motivates students and asking them what form of feedback they feel works best for them is that students are then afforded the opportunity to take on a feeling of ownership about their feedback (Scheerer, 2003). The short-term goal of this study was to collect and analyze the opinions of high school freshman and to determine what forms of feedback they felt may help them learn the best. The long term goal of this study is to contribute to our growing understanding of how students learn and what can be done to improve the process.