Document Type

Article

Publication Date

1-22-2018

Publication Title

Optics Express

ISSN

1094-4087

Volume

26

Issue

2

First Page

1851

Last Page

1869

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.26.001851

PubMed ID

29401908

Abstract

Precise direct-write lithography of 3D waveguides or diffractive structures within the volume of a photosensitive material is hindered by the lack of metrology that can yield predictive models for the micron-scale refractive index profile in response to a range of exposure conditions. We apply the transport of intensity equation in conjunction with confocal reflection microscopy to capture the complete spatial frequency spectrum of isolated 10 μm-scale gradient-refractive index structures written by single-photon direct-write laser lithography. The model material, a high-performance two-component photopolymer, is found to be linear, integrating, and described by a single master dose response function. The sharp saturation of this function is used to demonstrate nearly binary, flat-topped waveguide profiles in response to a Gaussian focus.

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