Precise direct-write lithography of 3D waveguides or diffractive structures within the volume of a photosensitive material is hindered by the lack of metrology that can yield predictive models for the micron-scale refractive index profile in response to a range of exposure conditions. We apply the transport of intensity equation in conjunction with confocal reflection microscopy to capture the complete spatial frequency spectrum of isolated 10 μm-scale gradient-refractive index structures written by single-photon direct-write laser lithography. The model material, a high-performance two-component photopolymer, is found to be linear, integrating, and described by a single master dose response function. The sharp saturation of this function is used to demonstrate nearly binary, flat-topped waveguide profiles in response to a Gaussian focus.
Glugla, David J; Chosy, Madeline B; Alim, Marvin D; Sullivan, Amy C; and McLeod, Robert R, "Transport-of-intensity-based phase imaging to quantify the refractive index response of 3D direct-write lithography." (2018). Electrical, Computer & Energy Engineering Faculty Contributions. 24.