Multimode fibers can guide thousands of modes capable of delivering spatial information. Unfortunately, mode dispersion and coupling have so far prevented their use in endoscopic applications. To address this long-lasting challenge, we present a robust scanning fluorescence endoscope. A spatial light modulator shapes the input excitation wavefront to focus light on the distal tip of the fiber and to rapidly scan the focus over the region of interest. A detector array collects the fluorescence emission propagated back from the sample to the proximal tip of the fiber. We demonstrate that proper selection of the multimode fiber is critical for a robust calibration and for high signal-to-background ratio performance. We compare different types of multimode fibers and experimentally show that a focus created through a graded-index fiber can withstand a few millimeters of fiber distal tip translation. The resulting scanning endoscopic microscope images fluorescent samples over a field of view of 80µm with a resolution of 2µm.
Caravaca-Aguirre, Antonio M and Piestun, Rafael, "Single multimode fiber endoscope." (2017). Electrical, Computer & Energy Engineering Faculty Contributions. 11.