Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation


Dynamics of Interacting Atoms in Optical Lattices Public Deposited

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  • Ultracold atoms in optical lattices offer a powerful platform for quantum simulation of interacting many-body systems. Canonical spin and Hubbard-type models can be faithfully realized thanks to the clean environment and long coherence times offered by the platform. Optical lattices also have access to external tools such as laser driving, which enable augmentation or tuneability of the realized systems.

    In this thesis, we explore the utility of such tools for realizing more tuneable systems, and for applications such as entanglement generation. We first study the use of spin-orbit coupling, generated by driving the atoms with lasers, to tune the dynamics of an optical lattice loaded with fermionic atoms with two flavors in the Mott insulating limit. The conventional antiferromagnetic superexchange interactions between the atoms are shown to be dressed by the laser, generating a more complex spin-1/2 XXZ model that can be controlled by the drive strength and spin-orbit coupling phase. This model is shown to be useful for generating cluster states for measurement-based quantum computation, which leverage the parallel nature of the atomic interactions to front-load entanglement generation. We also consider the use of the model for spin-squeezing, which can enable quantum-enhanced metrology by generating an entangled state before performing measurements.

    Going beyond spin physics, we study a resonant regime where atoms can move in the insulating limit due to the interplay between tunneling, spin-orbit coupling and interactions. We show that an effective kinetically constrained picture emerges, derive effective rules for the atomic motion, and demonstrate interesting self-binding properties that the atoms exhibit. We also show that the system can be used to emulate a synthetic magnetic field piercing a lattice. The response of this system to this effective field is described using the kinetic constraints. An analogous model for atoms with more than two internal levels is also derived, and the resonant response to the field is characterized.

    Aside from spin-orbit coupling, we also consider the use of excited band states to further control atomic dynamics. We first show that such band states can be used to robustly encode quantum information in a decoherence-free subspace insensitive to external noise. We then discuss the utility of excited bands for accessing p-wave interactions. An explicit scheme for measuring both on-site and cross-site interactions is provided. An experiment that successfully measures the on-site portion is also discussed.

Date Issued
  • 2023-07-21
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Last Modified
  • 2024-01-11
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