Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
Because of its proximity to the city of Naples and with a population of nearly 1 million people within its caldera, Campi Flegrei is one of the highest risk volcanic areas in the world. Since the last major eruption in 1538, the caldera has undergone frequent episodes of ground subsidence and uplift accompanied by seismic activity that has been interpreted as the result of a stationary, deeper source below the caldera that feeds shallower eruptions. However, the location and depth of the deeper source is not well-characterized and its relationship to current activity is poorly understood. Recently, a significant increase in the uplift rate has occurred, resulting in almost 13 cm of uplift by 2013 (De Martino et al., 2014; Samsonov et al., 2014b; Di Vito et al., 2016). Here we apply a principal component decomposition to high resolution time series from the region produced by the advanced Multidimensional SBAS DInSAR technique in order to better delineate both the deeper source and the recent shallow activity. We analyzed both a period of substantial subsidence (1993–1999) and a second of significant uplift (2007–2013) and inverted the associated vertical surface displacement for the most likely source models. Results suggest that the underlying dynamics of the caldera changed in the late 1990s, from one in which the primary signal arises from a shallow deflating source above a deeper, expanding source to one dominated by a shallow inflating source. In general, the shallow source lies between 2700 and 3400 m below the caldera while the deeper source lies at 7600 m or more in depth. The combination of principal component analysis with high resolution MSBAS time series data allows for these new insights and confirms the applicability of both to areas at risk from dynamic natural hazards.
Tiampo, Kristy F.; Gonzalez, Pablo J.; Samsonov, Sergey; Fernández, Jose; and Camacho, Antonio, "Principal component analysis of MSBAS DInSAR time series from Campi Flegrei, Italy" (2017). Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences Faculty Contributions. 80.