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There has been increasing interest in ice nucleation research in the last decade. To identify important gaps in our knowledge of ice nucleation processes and their impacts, two international workshops on ice nucleation were held in Vienna, Austria in 2015 and 2016. Experts from these workshops identified the following research needs: (1) uncovering the molecular identity of active sites for ice nucleation; (2) the importance of modeling for the understanding of heterogeneous ice nucleation; (3) identifying and quantifying contributions of biological ice nuclei from natural and managed environments; (4) examining the role of aging in ice nuclei; (5) conducting targeted sampling campaigns in clouds; and (6) designing lab and field experiments to increase our understanding of the role of ice-nucleating particles in the atmosphere. Interdisciplinary teams of scientists should work together to establish and maintain a common, unified language for ice nucleation research. A number of commercial applications benefit from ice nucleation research, including the production of artificial snow, the freezing and preservation of water-containing food products, and the potential modulation of weather. Additional work is needed to increase our understanding of ice nucleation processes and potential impacts on precipitation, water availability, climate change, crop health, and feedback cycles.


Ivan Coluzza 1, Jessie Creamean 2,3 , Michel J. Rossi 4 , Heike Wex 5 , Peter Aaron Alpert 6,7 , Valentino Bianco 1, Yvonne Boose 8, Christoph Dellago 1, Laura Felgitsch 9, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky 10, Hartmut Herrmann 5, Swetlana Jungblut 1, Zamin A. Kanji 8 , Georg Menzl 1, Bruce Moffett 11, Clemens Moritz 1, Anke Mutzel 5, Ulrich Pöschl 10, Michael Schauperl 12, Jan Scheel 10, Emiliano Stopelli 13, Frank Stratmann 5, Hinrich Grothe 9,* and David G. Schmale 9,14,*

1 Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Wien, Austria 2 Earth System Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, R/PSD, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305, USA 3 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, UCB 216, Boulder, CO 80309, USA 4 Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland 5 Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany 6 University Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, IRCELYON, Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et L’environnement de Lyon, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne, France 7 Paul Scherrer Institut, Environmental Chemistry, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland 8 Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zürich, Universitätstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zürich, Switzerland 9 Institute of Materials Chemistry (E165), Technische Universität Wien, Getreidemarkt 9/BC/1, A-1060 Wien, Austria 10 Multiphase Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Hahn-Meitner Weg 1, D-55128 Mainz, Germany 11 Ocean Lab, Fishguard, Pembrokeshire SA65 9HH UK 12 Institut für Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Centrum für Chemie und Biomedizin, Innrain 80-82, Innsbruck, Austria 13 Environmental Geosciences, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Bernoullistrasse 30, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland 14 Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science, Virginia Tech, 420 Ag Quad Lane, Latham 413, Blacksburg, VA 24060-0390, USA

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.