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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics









Ozone profile trends over the period 2000 to 2016 from several merged satellite ozone data sets and from ground-based data measured by four techniques at stations of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change indicate significant ozone increases in the upper stratosphere, between 35 and 48km altitude (5 and 1hPa). Near 2hPa (42km), ozone has been increasing by about 1.5% per decade in the tropics (20°S to 20°N), and by 2 to 2.5% per decade in the 35 to 60° latitude bands of both hemispheres. At levels below 35km (5hPa), 2000 to 2016 ozone trends are smaller and not statistically significant. The observed trend profiles are consistent with expectations from chemistry climate model simulations. This study confirms positive trends of upper stratospheric ozone already reported, e.g., in the WMO/UNEP Ozone Assessment 2014 or by Harris et al. (2015). Compared to those studies, three to four additional years of observations, updated and improved data sets with reduced drift, and the fact that nearly all individual data sets indicate ozone increase in the upper stratosphere, all give enhanced confidence. Uncertainties have been reduced, for example for the trend near 2hPa in the 35 to 60° latitude bands from about ±5% (2σ) in Harris et al. (2015) to less than ±2% (2σ). Nevertheless, a thorough analysis of possible drifts and differences between various data sources is still required, as is a detailed attribution of the observed increases to declining ozone-depleting substances and to stratospheric cooling. Ongoing quality observations from multiple independent platforms are key for verifying that recovery of the ozone layer continues as expected.


Wolfgang Steinbrecht1, Lucien Froidevaux2, Ryan Fuller2, Ray Wang3, John Anderson4, Chris Roth5, Adam Bourassa5, Doug Degenstein5, Robert Damadeo6, Joe Zawodny6, Stacey Frith7,8, Richard McPeters7, Pawan Bhartia7, Jeannette Wild9,10, Craig Long9, Sean Davis11,12, Karen Rosenlof11, Viktoria Sofieva13, Kaley Walker14, Nabiz Rahpoe15, Alexei Rozanov15, Mark Weber15, Alexandra Laeng16, Thomas von Clarmann16, Gabriele Stiller16, Natalya Kramarova7,8, Sophie Godin-Beekmann17, Thierry Leblanc18, Richard Querel19, Daan Swart20, Ian Boyd21, Klemens Hocke22, Niklaus Kämpfer22, Eliane Maillard Barras23, Lorena Moreira22, Gerald Nedoluha24, Corinne Vigouroux25, Thomas Blumenstock16, Matthias Schneider16, Omaira García26, Nicholas Jones27, Emmanuel Mahieu28, Dan Smale19, Michael Kotkamp19, John Robinson19, Irina Petropavlovskikh29,12, Neil Harris30, Birgit Hassler31, Daan Hubert25, and Fiona Tummon32

1Deutscher Wetterdienst, Hohenpeissenberg, Germany
2Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
3School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
4Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Hampton University, Hampton, VA, USA
5Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
6NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA
7NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Silver Spring, MD, USA
8Science Systems and Applications Inc., Lanham, MD, USA
9NOAA/NWS/NCEP/Climate Prediction Center, College Park, MD, USA
10Innovim LLC, Greenbelt, MD, USA
11Chemical Sciences Division, NOAA ESRL, Boulder, CO, USA
12CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA
13Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
14Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
15Institute for Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
16Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe, Germany
17Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Guyancourt, France
18Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Wrightwood, CA, USA
19National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Lauder, New Zealand
20National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands
21BC Scientific Consulting LLC, Stony Brook, NY, USA
22Institute of Applied Physics and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
23MeteoSwiss, Payerne, Switzerland
24Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., USA
25Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), Brussels, Belgium
26Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre (IARC), Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET), Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
27School of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia
28Institute of Astrophysics and Geophysics, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium
29Climate Monitoring Division, NOAA ESRL, Boulder, CO, USA
30Centre for Atmospheric Informatics and Emissions Technology, Cranfield University, Cranfield, UK
31Bodeker Scientific, Alexandra, New Zealand
32ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

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