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Atmospheric Measurement Techniques









Natural emissions of ozone-and-aerosol-precursor gases such as isoprene and monoterpenes are high in the southeastern US. In addition, anthropogenic emissions are significant in the southeastern US and summertime photochemistry is rapid. The NOAA-led SENEX (Southeast Nexus) aircraft campaign was one of the major components of the Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) and was focused on studying the interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions to form secondary pollutants. During SENEX, the NOAA WP-3D aircraft conducted 20 research flights between 27 May and 10 July 2013 based out of Smyrna, TN.

Here we describe the experimental approach, the science goals and early results of the NOAA SENEX campaign. The aircraft, its capabilities and standard measurements are described. The instrument payload is summarized including detection limits, accuracy, precision and time resolutions for all gas-and-aerosol phase instruments. The inter-comparisons of compounds measured with multiple instruments on the NOAA WP-3D are presented and were all within the stated uncertainties, except two of the three NO2 measurements.

The SENEX flights included day- and nighttime flights in the southeastern US as well as flights over areas with intense shale gas extraction (Marcellus, Fayetteville and Haynesville shale). We present one example flight on 16 June 2013, which was a daytime flight over the Atlanta region, where several crosswind transects of plumes from the city and nearby point sources, such as power plants, paper mills and landfills, were flown. The area around Atlanta has large biogenic isoprene emissions, which provided an excellent case for studying the interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions. In this example flight, chemistry in and outside the Atlanta plumes was observed for several hours after emission. The analysis of this flight showcases the strategies implemented to answer some of the main SENEX science questions.


Carsten Warneke1,2, Michael Trainer2, Joost A. de Gouw1,2, David D. Parrish1,2, David W. Fahey2, A. R. Ravishankara2,a, Ann M. Middlebrook2, Charles A. Brock2, James M. Roberts2, Steven S. Brown2, Jonathan A. Neuman1,2, Brian M. Lerner1,2, Daniel Lack1,2, Daniel Law1,2, Gerhard Hübler1,2, Iliana Pollack1,2,a, Steven Sjostedt1,2, Thomas B. Ryerson2, Jessica B. Gilman1,2, Jin Liao1,2, John Holloway1,2, Jeff Peischl1,2, John B. Nowak1,2,b, Kenneth C. Aikin1,2, Kyung-Eun Min1,2,c, Rebecca A. Washenfelder1,2, Martin G. Graus1,2,d, Mathew Richardson1,2, Milos Z. Markovic1,2,e, Nick L. Wagner1,2, André Welti1,2,f, Patrick R. Veres1,2, Peter Edwards1,2,g, Joshua P. Schwarz2, Timothy Gordon1,2, William P. Dube1,2, Stuart A. McKeen1,2, Jerome Brioude1,2, Ravan Ahmadov1,2, Aikaterini Bougiatioti3, Jack J. Lin3, Athanasios Nenes3,11,12, Glenn M. Wolfe4,9, Thomas F. Hanisco4, Ben H. Lee5, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker5, Joel A. Thornton5,i, Frank N. Keutsch6,h, Jennifer Kaiser6,j, Jingqiu Mao7,10, and Courtney D. Hatch8

1Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA USA
2Chemical Sciences Division, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, CO, USA
3Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
4NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA
5University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
6University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI, USA
7Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, NOAA, Princeton, NJ, USA
8Department of Chemistry, Hendrix College, 1600 Washington Ave., Conway, AR, USA
9University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, USA
10Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
11Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Hellas, Athens, Greece
12National Observatory of Athens, Athens, Greece
anow at: Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Ft Collins, CO, USA
bnow at: Aerodyne Research Inc., Billerica, MA, USA
cnow at: Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, Korea
dnow at: Institute of Atmospheric and Cryospheric Sciences, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
enow at: Air Quality Processes Research Section, Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
fnow at: Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig, Germany
gnow at: University of York, York, UK
hnow at: Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
inow at: Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland
jnow at: Harvard University, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, MA, USA