Date of Award

Spring 1-1-2017

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

First Advisor

David J. Nesbitt

Second Advisor

William C. Lineberger

Third Advisor

Eric Cornell

Fourth Advisor

Heather Lewandowski

Fifth Advisor

Barney Ellison


Detailed molecular scale interactions at the gas–liquid interface are explored with quantum state-to-state resolved scattering of a jet-cooled beam of NO(2Π1/2; N = 0) from ionic liquid and molten metal surfaces. The scattered distributions are probed via laser-induced fluorescence methods, which yield rotational and spin-orbit state populations that elucidate the dynamics of energy transfer at the gas-liquid interface. These collision dynamics are explored as a function of incident collision energy, surface temperature, scattering angle, and liquid identity, all of which are found to substantially affect the degree of rotational, electronic and vibrational excitation of NO via collisions at the liquid surface.

Rotational distributions observed reveal two distinct scattering pathways, (i) molecules that trap, thermalize and eventually desorb from the surface (trapping-desorption, TD), and (ii) those that undergo prompt recoil (impulsive scattering, IS) prior to complete equilibration with the liquid surface. Thermally desorbing NO molecules are found to have rotational temperatures close to, but slightly cooler than the surface temperature, indicative of rotational dependent sticking probabilities on liquid surfaces. Nitric oxide is a radical with multiple low-lying electronic states that serves as an ideal candidate for exploring nonadiabatic state-changing collision dynamics at the gas-liquid interface, which induce significant excitation from ground (2Π1/2) to excited (2Π3/2) spin–orbit states. Molecular beam scattering of supersonically cooled NO from hot molten metals (Ga and Au, Ts = 300 – 1400 K) is also explored, which provide preliminary evidence for vibrational excitation of NO mediated by thermally populated electron-hole pairs in the hot, conducting liquid metals. The results highlight the presence of electronically nonadiabatic effects and build toward a more complete characterization of energy transfer dynamics at gas-liquid interfaces.