Document Type

Article

Publication Date

11-2016

Publication Title

Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

ISSN

1680-7324

Volume

16

Issue

22

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-14357-2016

Abstract

Ammonia (NH3) has been detected in the upper troposphere by the analysis of averaged MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) infrared limb-emission spectra. We have found enhanced amounts of NH3 within the region of the Asian summer monsoon at 12-15 km altitude. Three-monthly, 10 degrees longitude x 10 degrees latitude average profiles reaching maximum mixing ratios of around 30 pptv in this altitude range have been retrieved, with a vertical resolution of 3-8 km and estimated errors of about 5 pptv. These observations show that loss processes during transport from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere within the Asian monsoon do not deplete the air entirely of NH3. Thus, ammonia might contribute to the so-called Asian tropopause aerosol layer by the formation of ammonium aerosol particles. On a global scale, outside the monsoon area and during different seasons, we could not detect enhanced values of NH3 above the actual detection limit of about 3-5 pptv. This upper bound helps to constrain global model simulations.

Comments

AUTHORS

M. Höpfner (Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany) R. Volkamer (Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA) R. Volkamer (Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, CO, USA) U. Grabowski (Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany) M. Grutter (Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico) J. Orphal (Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany) G. Stiller (Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany) T. von Clarmann (Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany) G. Wetzel (Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany)

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