Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
VOCs related to oil and gas extraction operations in the United States were measured by H3O+ chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (H3O+ ToF-CIMS/PTR-ToF-MS) from aircraft during the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) campaign in March–April 2015. This work presents an overview of major VOC species measured in nine oil- and gas-producing regions, and a more detailed analysis of H3O+ ToF-CIMS measurements in the Permian Basin within Texas and New Mexico. Mass spectra are dominated by small photochemically produced oxygenates and compounds typically found in crude oil: aromatics, cyclic alkanes, and alkanes. Mixing ratios of aromatics were frequently as high as those measured downwind of large urban areas. In the Permian, the H3O+ ToF-CIMS measured a number of underexplored or previously unreported species, including aromatic and cycloalkane oxidation products, nitrogen heterocycles including pyrrole (C4H5N) and pyrroline (C4H7N), H2S, and a diamondoid (adamantane) or unusual monoterpene. We additionally assess the specificity of a number of ion masses resulting from H3O+ ion chemistry previously reported in the literature, including several new or alternate interpretations.
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Koss, Abigail R.; Yuan, Bin; Warneke, Carsten; Gilman, Jessica B.; Lerner, Brian M.; Veres, Patrick R.; Peischl, Jeff; Eilerman, Scott J.; Wild, Rob; Brown, Steven S.; Thompson, Chelsea; Ryerson, Thomas; Hanisco, Thomas; Wolfe, Glenn M.; St. Clair, Jason M.; Thayer, Mitchell; Keutsch, Frank N.; Murphy, Shane; and de Gouw, Joost A., "Observations of VOC emissions and photochemical products over US oil- and gas-producing regions using high-resolution H3O+ CIMS (PTR-ToF-MS)" (2017). Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Contributions. 111.