Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is both a first responder to DNA damage and a chromatin architectural protein. How PARP1 rapidly finds DNA damage sites in the context of a nucleus filled with undamaged DNA, to which it also binds, is an unresolved question. Here, we show that PARP1 association with DNA is diffusion-limited, and release of PARP1 from DNA is promoted by binding of an additional DNA molecule that facilitates a 'monkey bar' mechanism, also known as intersegment transfer. The WGR-domain of PARP1 is essential to this mechanism, and a point mutation (W589A) recapitulates the altered kinetics of the domain deletion. Demonstrating the physiological importance of the monkey bar mechanism for PARP1 function, the W589A mutant accumulates at sites of DNA damage more slowly following laser micro-irradiation than wild-type PARP1. Clinically relevant inhibitors of PARP1 did not alter the rate or mechanism of the release of PARP1 from DNA.
Rudolph, Johannes; Mahadevan, Jyothi; Dyer, Pamela; and Luger, Karolin, "Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 searches DNA via a 'monkey bar' mechanism." (2018). Biochemistry Faculty Contributions. 3.
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