SIAM J. APPLIED DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS
Mixing of a passive scalar in a fluid flow results from a two part process in which large gradients are first created by advection and then smoothed by diffusion. We investigate methods of designing efficient stirrers to optimize mixing of a passive scalar in a two-dimensional, nonautonomous, incom- pressible flow over a finite-time interval. The flow is modeled by a sequence of area-preserving maps whose parameters change in time, defining a mixing protocol. Stirring efficiency is measured by a negative Sobolev seminorm; its decrease implies creation of fine-scale structure. A Perron–Frobenius operator is used to numerically advect the scalar for two examples: compositions of Chirikov stan- dard maps and of Harper maps. In the former case, we find that a protocol corresponding to a single vertical shear composed with horizontal shearing at all other steps is nearly optimal. For the Harper maps, we devise a predictive, one-step scheme to choose appropriate fixed point stabilities and to control the Fourier spectrum evolution to obtain a near-optimal protocol.
Meiss, James and Mitchell, Rebecca, "Designing a Finite-Time Mixer: Optimizing Stirring for Two-Dimensional Maps" (2017). Applied Mathematics Faculty Contributions. 5.