Date of Award

Spring 4-1-2017

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)

First Advisor

Catherine M. Cameron

Second Advisor

Scott G. Ortman

Third Advisor

Douglas B. Bamforth


This study examines use of smoking pipes at trade centers in the Northern Rio Grande region of New Mexico, asking: were smoking pipes involved in negotiations between Pueblo people and their Plains neighbors? Methods used included examining physical attributes of pipes that provide information on pipe use and regional style, as well as spatial and temporal analyses of pipe concentrations.

Finding pipes of ceremonial forms and materials, as well as concentrations of pipes in areas where Plains-Pueblo interaction took place, provides evidence that at least some pipes were used in ceremonial interactions between different groups. Presence of non-local pipe forms and materials at Pueblo and Plains sites supports the idea that Plains and Pueblo people were interacting, and that pipes were part of this interaction. Blending of Plains and Pueblo forms and materials suggests that there may have been a certain level of integration, alliance, or partnership in these interactions.