The contentious law and ethics of sampling saw a dramatic, if incremental development in the case of VMG Salsoul v. Madonna Louise Ciccone. The Ninth Circuit found that a de minimis argument can be used in sampling cases for the first time since the previously dominant Bridgeport v. Dimension Films. The case sets up a circuit split with the 6th circuit, one that could bode well for those wishing to engage in musical appropriation art.
Harbeson, Eric J. "Bridge Over Bridgeport: An Incremental Change in Case Law of Sampling." ARSC Journal 49/1 (Spring, 2018): 41–46.