Document Type


Publication Date


Conference Name

World Library and Information Congress: 78th IFLA General Conference and Assembly

Conference City


Conference Dates

11-17 August, 2012


American colleges and universities are prolific producers of copyrighted recorded material. In the normal course of executing their educational missions, colleges and universities produce numerous recordings of concerts and recitals by faculty, students, and guest artists. Depending on the institution and its facilities, resources, and policies in place, institutions could potentially produce hundreds of recordings in any given semester. However, the legal ability of colleges and universities to use these institutionally-produced sound recordings is the subject of much uncertainty. The legal issues surrounding ownership of these recordings are especially unclear, and those are examined here. The paper looks both at recordings fixed before 15 February 1972 (which are protected by state laws) and at recordings fixed after that date (which are governed by federal law), with special attention to the circumstances under which the institution may be a joint author.